Legitimidad liberal: ¿deliberación, justificación pública o derechos humanos?

Director del Proyecto  Mariano Garreta Leclercq

UBACYT 20020120200002

Lugar: Instituto de Filosofía de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras (UBA)
Título: “Legitimidad liberal: ¿deliberación, justificación pública o derechos humanos?”

Duración: 2013-2016
Integrantes: Julio Montero (Co-director), Facundo García Valverde, Juliana Udi, Francisco García Gibson, Martín Oliveira, Miguel Duranti, Luis García Valiña, Eliana Franceschini; Federico Aval.

Resumen:
El concepto de legitimidad, concebido desde una perspectiva normativa, ha cobrado en las últimas décadas especial relevancia en diversos debates dentro del ámbito de la filosofía política liberal. Dicho concepto juega un papel fundamental en tres niveles de análisis: 1) la especificación de los rasgos que debería satisfacer una teoría de la justicia en el contexto de pluralismo ideológico -religioso, filosófico y moral- que caracteriza a las sociedades contemporáneas; 2) la elaboración de una defensa de la necesidad de promover la institucionalización de procesos deliberativos de toma de decisión capaces de mejorar la calidad de las instituciones democráticas y; 3) la definición de los rasgos que debería satisfacer un sistema de cooperación equitativo en el plano internacional (lo cual supone, a su vez, establecer qué tipo de concepción de los derechos humanos puede resultar justificable frente a las distintas comunidades políticas que pueden formar parte de dicho sistema de cooperación). El presente proyecto toma como punto de partida la concepción de la legitimidad política acuñada originalmente por John Rawls y se propone ofrecer una reelaboración de dicha concepción capaz de dar respuesta a las dificultades que se plantean en los tres niveles de análisis mencionados. En tal sentido se analizarán y se intentará hacer frente a una serie de objeciones formuladas contra el marco conceptual que el proyecto toma como punto de partida: objeciones asociadas con posiciones perfeccionistas -liberales, republicanas, pragmatistas; con teorías deliberativas de la democracia que abogan por concepciones de la razón pública diferentes; con posiciones que atribuyen a la deliberación política un valor centralmente epistémico; objeciones al supuesto carácter insuficientemente liberal y excesivo minimalismo en derechos humanos al que conduciría la adopción de una concepción de la legitimidad política como la referida en el plano internacional.

 

Abstract:

The concept of political legitimacy, regarded from a normative perspective, has become particularly important for liberal political philosophy. This concept plays a key role in three domains: 1) It is vital to determine the conditions that any theory of justice has to fulfill in view of the ideological pluralism -religious, philosophical, moral- present in contemporary societies; 2) It is important to show that the quality of democratic institutions must be improved by the institutionalization of deliberative processes; 3) It contributes to clarify the conditions that a fair international order must satisfy in the international domain (which requires, in turn, deciding what kind of conception of human rights can be justified for the several political communities participating in that order). This research project takes the conception of political legitimacy originally proposed by John Rawls as its starting point and aims to offer a new version of this conception in order to address the three issues mentioned above. In this vein, the project will face some important objections against the theoretical framework adopted as a starting point: objections steaming from perfectionist conceptions -either liberal, republican or pragmatist; objections steaming from deliberative conceptions defending an alternative conception of public reason; objections steaming from views assigning deliberation mainly an epistemic value; objections claiming that the conception of political legitimacy we favor is not enough liberal in the international domain as it leads to an excessive minimalism in terms of human rights.

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